Equilibrium - Postlab Questions

Postlab Questions

1. Predict what would happen if the ammonium system described in the experiment was heated.

2. Consider the following equilibrium.

Cu+2 + 4 NH3 Cu(NH3)4+2

The copper ion in solution is light blue. The Cu(NH3)4+2 ion is a deep blue. The tube on the left contains only copper ions. Identify what chemical was added to produce the results shown in the center tube. Identify what chemical may have been added to the center tube to produce the results shown in the right tube.

3. The barium ion is toxic to humans. However, barium sulfate is commonly used as an image enhancer for gastrointestinal x-rays. What does this imply about the position of the equilibrium shown below.

BaSO4 Ba+2 + SO4-2

4. Hemoglobin (Hb) and oxygen gas form a complex (HbO2) that carries oxygen throughout the human body. Unfortunately, carbon monoxide also binds to hemoglobin so that an equilibrium is established. Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs when the concentration of HbO2 in the blood is reduced.

HbO2 + CO HbCO + O2

The first aid for a person suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning is to (1) remove them to an area of fresh air, and (2) administer oxygen. Using the principles of equilibrium, explain how each of these helps to restore the HbO2 concentration.

This completes the experiment.

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